Secret James Packer Crown Resorts documents to be made public

Details of a secret agreement between the NSW gambling regulator and James Packer’s Crown Resorts outlining measures to combat crime and corruption at the gambling mogul’s proposed casino at Barangaroo are set to be made public.
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The NSW upper house privileges committee has supported the findings of an independent arbiter appointed by Parliament, Keith Mason, QC, that a privilege claim by Crown and the regulator should not apply to significant parts of the document.

Greens MP John Kaye intends to move a motion on Wednesday to have a largely unredacted version of the agreement tabled in Parliament on Thursday.

Crown and the Independent Liquor and Gaming Authority had argued that the release of the details would be commercially damaging to the casino company.

But last month, Mr Mason found many of the censored details should be made public.

The matter was referred to the privileges committee by Dr Kaye after the government indicated it would not support the uncensored document’s immediate release.

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Frank Gehry ‘paper bag’ building at University of Technology set to seduce students

The striking Frank Gehry-designed Dr Chau Chak Wing building is open for business. Photo: Nic Walker Inside: Frank Gehry-designed Dr Chau Chak Wing building. Photo: Nic Walker
Nanjing Night Net

The brutalist brown tower that stains the skyline above UTS has long been regarded as harbouring Sydney’s best views, if only because the offending building itself is not visible.

Now the university has added its own flourish to that vista, putting the finishing touches on its Frank Gehry-designed Dr Chau Chak Wing building ahead of an official opening in February.

The interior, unveiled for the first time on Tuesday, reflects the latest thinking about how students learn, with smaller classrooms and more open-plan spaces. But for most Sydneysiders it is the building’s striking exterior – said to resemble a crumpled paper bag – that will inspire a study tour.

Five types of brick sourced from Bowral were custom-made for the project, containing a continuous groove rather than a typical indent. Stainless steel bars were inserted through the groove, bolting the 320,000 bricks to steel frames that form the graceful, undulating facade.

The atypical design made construction a slow, painstaking task, with brickies laying perhaps 100 bricks a day rather than their usual 500. But after starting work in November 2012 the building was completed on time and on budget at $180 million, the university said.

Gehry, the lauded Canadian-American architect behind Spain’s Guggenheim Museum, wanted the building to emphasise the need to “create artistry” in business education, according to UTS business school dean Roy Green.

“This was a building that has been designed from the inside out,” Professor Green said. “It starts not from the flamboyance of the architecture…but from the functionality of the spaces.”

UTS hopes the interior will be so attractive that students won’t want to leave. The days of giant lecture theatres are gone, says deputy vice-chancellor Shirley Alexander, thanks to the advent of online learning. The Gehry building’s auditorium seats just 240. Instead, there are smaller classrooms and more work spaces, lounges and kitchens where students can meet and (hopefully) study.

“Anything that can be taught online should be,” Professor Alexander said. The more intimate spaces were better configured for interacting with teachers, collaborating with peers and ‘high-touch’ learning,” she said.

“Almost every time I see a research paper where they’re attributing learning gains to a particular technology, when you look closer it’s the small group learning experience that has made the difference.”

The Gehry building forms part of a renewed urban precinct around Chinatown which includes the Goods Line, a pedestrian thoroughfare similar to Manhattan’s High Line, and a new residential district at the south end of Darling Harbour.

As for the university’s much-maligned Broadway high-rise, deputy vice-chancellor Patrick Woods said it would continue to be treasured “for the time being”.

“There are those who think it is absolutely wonderful,” he said.

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Electricity ‘poles and wires’ profits dip as NSW Premier Mike Baird prepares them for sale

For sale, maybe: Poles and wires will go on the market if the Baird government is re-elected next year. Photo: Jeffrey ChanDeclining electricity use in NSW has led to lower profits for state-owned electricity “poles and wires” companies just as the Baird government prepares to seek a mandate at next year’s election for their partial privatisation.
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A report by NSW Auditor-General Grant Hehir reveals after-tax profit for distribution businesses Ausgrid, Endeavour Energy and Essential Energy for 2013-14 was $125 million less than the previous year, while the figure for Transgrid was $9 million lower.

Combined, the companies made an after-tax profit of $1.2 billion, down from $1.3 billion the year before.

Mr Hehir’s report says the lower profit reflected reduced electricity use by customers due to factors including milder weather conditions, energy efficiency measures and more use of solar power.

The result also came despite an underspend on electricity infrastructure by the poles and wires companies of $3.7 billion – 20 per cent less than what was allowed by the national regulator between 2009 and 2013.

But the report said the lower capital expenditure should spell good news for consumers, with electricity prices forecast to fall between 2014 and 2019 as a result.

The report, released on Tuesday, shows that dividends paid to the government by all state-owned electricity companies dropped from $1.16 billion to $872 million in 2013-14. This includes power generators that have since been sold.

However, the tax equivalent payments to the government – designed to ensure the government-owned companies operate on a level playing field against privately-owned competitors – were up from $580 million to $829 million.

This meant that total payments to government remained steady at $1.7 billion.

The government is proposing the sale of 49 per cent of the poles and wires businesses if re-elected in March next year. Essential Energy, which covers regional areas, is not included.

Premier Mike Baird has said the government anticipates about $20 billion from the sale.

This would comprise $13 billion from the transaction, about $2 billion in federal government incentive payments and $5 billion from interest earned after the proceeds are placed in the infrastructure fund, Restart NSW.

The government has said it will use the funds to build a second Sydney Harbour crossing and rapid transit line, extensions to the WestConnex motorway and rural and regional infrastructure projects.

Opposition Leader John Robertson said the report exposed the “folly” of Mr Baird’s privatisation plan, which would “hand over up to $1.7 billion each year to a private company rather than invest that money back into infrastructure and essential services”.

Greens MP John Kaye said the result was “terrible news” for Mr Baird’s proposed sale.

“The great promise of the pots of gold that were supposed to be delivered from poles and wires privatisation is in fact an illusion that is being chipped away by the realities of an industry with declining demand and growing costs,” he said.

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Crowded house: the post office box shared by 21 ALP members

Almost two dozen Labor members listed the same post office box in Auburn as their residential address for close to a year, in the latest evidence fanning allegations of branch stacking in the western Sydney seat.
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ALP records obtained by Fairfax Media reveal that between December 2013 and September this year, up to 21 branch members listed PO Box 1158, Auburn, as their place of residence.

Eighteen of the members were in the controversial Regents Park branch, where numbers have blown out to more than 300 before the forthcoming preselection to represent Labor in the safe seat of Auburn at next year’s state election.

Between 2009 and 2012, the records show, the post office box was listed as a mailing address by former Auburn mayor Hicham Zraika.

Councillor Zraika is secretary of the Regents Park branch and expected to challenge incumbent Auburn MP Barbara Perry in the preselection contest, which opened last Friday.

The revelations follow those on Saturday, when it emerged that the same records implausibly suggested Cr Zraika, his wife Dania and their three daughters share their Berala home with eight other Regents Park branch members.

Supporters of Ms Perry – a former minister on the opposition front bench who is set to lose preselection – have now raised concerns that the same branch members could be eligible to vote in the parliamentary leadership ballot to be conducted after next year’s state election.

Numerous ALP sources allege the party has ignored the irregularities because opposition leader John Robertson needs to rely on Cr Zraika’s block of votes in the ballot, due to take place after the state election.

They say this is in part because the party is worried about Mr Robertson not securing blocks of votes from local powerbrokers whose ambitions he has thwarted.

They include Burwood mayor John Faker, against whose preselection Mr Robertson intervened in support of former Newcastle MP Jodi McKay.

Mr Robertson has also intervened in Lakemba to secure the preselection of Punchbowl Boys High School principal Jihad Dib over Bankstown mayor Khal Asfour – a move criticised by former NSW Premier Morris Iemma.

On Tuesday Cr Zraika, who noted there hadn’t been a rank and file preselection in Auburn since 1988, denied there were anomalies with the branches.

“The Rules of the ALP have always, and will always, be adhered to,” he said.

“If there are suggestions that this is not the case, then the ALP has robust and comprehensive internal processes to deal with precisely such matters.”

NSW ALP general secretary Jamie Clements said allegations aired in the media had yet to come before the ALP’s independent tribunal process.

“I can assure you that these matters will be dealt with through those processes and the only people who will get a vote will be members entitled under our rules,” he said.

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Yingying Dou: The mastermind behind the University essay writing machine

Students enlist website to write essays, assignmentsUniversity assignments – why are they cheating? Students buying assignments online could be charged with fraudLike SMH Student on Facebook
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At the helm of the company embroiled in a large-scale academic cheating scandal is a Chinese-born businesswoman named Yingying Dou.

The enterprising 30-year-old, who also goes by “Serena”, has used her accounting degree to build a lucrative ghostwriting service, called MyMaster, aimed at Chinese international students.

As a flyer for MyMaster exemplifies, Ms Dou has ingeniously capitalised on the anxiety experienced by many overseas students.

“Are you racking your brains on your school work? Do you worry about spending $3000 retaking tuition on the failing subject? Leave your worries to MyMaster and make your study easier!,” one flyer posted on a toilet door at the University of Technology, Sydney, read.

This pitch has seen Ms Dou’s MyMaster company turn over at least $160,000 during 2014 and return more than 900 fraudulent assignments to students prepared to hand over up to $1000 for the work.

Her business ventures complement her expensive tastes, including designer handbags, which she has sold online for more than $3000.

Born in Chongqing in south-western China, Ms Dou attended high school at Pittwater House, a private school on Sydney’s affluent northern beaches.

Since graduating from Macquarie University, Ms Dou has established herself as the director of two companies: MyMaster and coaching college Yingcredible Tutoring.

She runs her businesses out of Chinatown and her main office space is on the sixth floor of a George Street building opposite World Square, where she has multiple classrooms for tutoring.

As the sole director of MyMaster, she has built a sophisticated online business from scratch, which now claims to have a 100-strong writing workforce and is servicing hundreds of students at some of Australia’s top universities.

When Fairfax Media approached Ms Dou she denied having ever heard of the website but promised she would investigate the matter.

“I will find out what’s going on,” she said. “I try my best to provide you information.”

Fairfax Media’s subsequent email questions remain unanswered and the website was taken down hours later.

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University assignments – why are they cheating?

Students enlist website to write essays, assignmentsStudents buying assignments online could be charged with fraudWho is Yingying Dou, the mastermind behind the site
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Inflated tuition fees, inadequate English skills and crippling family expectations are the most likely reasons international university students are engaging ghost essay writers, experts in international education say.

The MyMaster website, which is at the centre of a major cheating enterprise at Australian universities exposed by Fairfax Media, is understood to be used almost exclusively by students from China.

A flyer posted on the back of a toilet door at UTS gives insight to the anxiety among students.

“Are you racking your brains on your school work? Do you worry about spending $3000 retaking tuition on a failing subject? Leave your worries to MyMaster and make your study easier!” says the flyer in translation.

Numerous attempts to contact students who have used the service were unsuccessful.

But leading academics say the extraordinary fees international students pay – often between $30,000 and $40,000 a year – means studying at an Australian university is a high-stakes game.

 

“There’s often enormous family pressure on these students to do well,” Andrew Norton, the higher education program director at the Grattan Institute, said.

“I’ve heard horrible stories about extended families collectively supporting students in Australia, so the pressure they must feel as a result of these expectations is just enormous.”

He said cultural differences could also be relevant.

 

“In some countries, corruption is just widespread and people don’t view it the same way it’s viewed in Australia,” he said.

The University of Sydney’s advice on teaching international students warns they have “a significant risk of unintentionally plagiarising or failing to comply with academic honesty expectations”.

China now has by far the biggest share of Australia’s international students, at more than a quarter, and only 18 per cent of all international students come from countries where English is the first language.

But the University of Adelaide’s Michelle Picard, an expert in academic integrity and cultural competency, said the problem is often a lack of confidence in using English, rather than inability.

“I think the fear element is the strongest one,” Dr Picard said. “Sometimes they do have severe language difficulties or cultural change difficulties – but more often it’s their lack of confidence.”

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Students enlist MyMaster website to write essays, assignments

Yingying Dou leaves the Sydney premises where she works. Photo: Dominic LorrimerFull investigation: SMH EducationLike SMH Student on FacebookTop 10 known users by institution, by subject and by amount spent
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Thousands of students have enlisted a Sydney company to write essays and assignments for them as well as sit online tests, paying up to $1000 for the service. Their desire to succeed threatens the credibility and international standing of some of our most prestigious institutions.

A Fairfax Media investigation has uncovered a sophisticated online business, which has produced thousands of university assignments and turned over hundreds of thousands of dollars since it began operating in May 2012.

Yingying Dou, a 30-year-old Chinese-born woman, is the sole director of MyMaster Group Pty Ltd, which is behind the website, written in Chinese and aimed at international students. It claims to be the largest essay-writing service in Sydney, with 100 graduate writers from “prestigious universities in Australia” ready to accept jobs at any one time.

A flyer posted to the back of a toilet door at UTS gives insight to the anxiety among international students Ms Dou has capitalised on.

“Are you racking your brains on your school work? Do you worry about spending $3000 retaking tuition on the failing subject? Leave your worries to MyMaster and make your study easier!” the flyer says in translation.

Fairfax Media has seen 700 receipts for direct deposits to the MyMaster bank account, totalling more than $160,000 this year alone – a conservative estimate of the company’s annual income, as students can also pay by cash or PayPal.

Payments range from $13 to $1050 and during busy assessment periods the website receives up to 20 requests a day.

One request lodged was for a 6000-word research assignment for a human rights law course at the University of NSW, which was worth 70 per cent of the student’s overall grade.

The cheating is widespread throughout the state’s university system, with almost 1000 assignments produced this year for students studying courses as diverse as philosophy, economics, law, engineering, astronomy and marketing.

One student spent more than $1500 on assignments for five different courses at the University of Newcastle’s Business School. Another student from the University of Wollongong paid for at least eight assignments.

The University of Sydney, the state’s premier institution, was among the most widely affected, with cheating spread across multiple faculties. During 2014, students from at least 37 of the university’s courses used the service.

The entrepreneur, Yingying Dou, went to high school at Pittwater House, a private school in Collaroy on Sydney’s northern beaches, and studied accounting at Macquarie University.

When approached by Fairfax Media, Ms Dou, who runs a university tutoring company called Yingcredible, would not comment on the MyMaster website.

“If you’re talking about MyMaster, I have nothing to talk [about],” she said. “No comment for today.”

Records show MyMaster and Yingcredible Tutoring are registered to the same principal place of business in Sussex Street in Chinatown. Ms Dou is also the registrant of the mymaster南京夜网.au website domain.

Within hours of Fairfax Media approaching Ms Dou, the MyMaster website was taken down.

 

A postgraduate finance student at Macquarie University said the practice of buying assignments online was widespread. On two separate occasions while he was working on a group assignment, international students in the group suggested they purchase the assignment online, rather than do the work themselves.

“I was not keen on that idea. I think people just want to do whatever they can to pass the course at all costs,” he said.

Assignment prices are advertised as a flat rate based on the number of words and the student’s level of qualification, with masters students paying more for assignments than undergraduate or diploma. The flat rates promise students a pass or credit grade, but they can negotiate a price for work that is of a distinction or high distinction quality.

MyMaster recruits its writers on Chinese social media sites, promising good rates and an end-of-year bonus.

In addition to essays, MyMaster customers have paid for business reports, speeches, powerpoint presentations and the completion of online tests, and requests range from short homework tasks to comprehensive research assignments.

Some students uploaded instructions for their ghost writer, explicitly detailing how they wanted their assignment to be completed.

 

They are guaranteed the purchased work is original and will not be detected by the universities’ plagiarism software.

Fairfax Media is aware of numerous websites offering similar services to students in Australia but most appear to be located offshore.

Australia’s international student market is a $15 billion industry and the country’s largest export after iron ore, coal and gold. International students, who often pay more than three times as much as locals for their degrees, generate a quarter of the annual income at some Australian universities.

Key interstate universities have also been ensnared in the scandal including RMIT, La Trobe University, Curtin University and the Queensland University of Technology.

The chief executive of Universities Australia, Belinda Robinson, said universities were aware of operations like MyMaster looking to exploit “a small minority of students seeking an easy path to success”.

“Students caught deliberately attempting to pass others’ work off as their own can be subject to harsh sanctions, up to and including automatic failure of courses and, ultimately, expulsion from the university,” she said.

Do you know more? [email protected]南京夜网.au

This story Administrator ready to work first appeared on Nanjing Night Net.


Students enlist MyMaster website to write essays, assignments

Yingying Dou leaves the Sydney premises where she works. Photo: Dominic LorrimerFull investigation: SMH EducationLike SMH Student on FacebookTop 10 known users by institution, by subject and by amount spent
Nanjing Night Net

Thousands of students have enlisted a Sydney company to write essays and assignments for them as well as sit online tests, paying up to $1000 for the service. Their desire to succeed threatens the credibility and international standing of some of our most prestigious institutions.

A Fairfax Media investigation has uncovered a sophisticated online business, which has produced thousands of university assignments and turned over hundreds of thousands of dollars since it began operating in May 2012.

Yingying Dou, a 30-year-old Chinese-born woman, is the sole director of MyMaster Group Pty Ltd, which is behind the website, written in Chinese and aimed at international students. It claims to be the largest essay-writing service in Sydney, with 100 graduate writers from “prestigious universities in Australia” ready to accept jobs at any one time.

A flyer posted to the back of a toilet door at UTS gives insight to the anxiety among international students Ms Dou has capitalised on.

“Are you racking your brains on your school work? Do you worry about spending $3000 retaking tuition on the failing subject? Leave your worries to MyMaster and make your study easier!” the flyer says in translation.

Fairfax Media has seen 700 receipts for direct deposits to the MyMaster bank account, totalling more than $160,000 this year alone – a conservative estimate of the company’s annual income, as students can also pay by cash or PayPal.

Payments range from $13 to $1050 and during busy assessment periods the website receives up to 20 requests a day.

One request lodged was for a 6000-word research assignment for a human rights law course at the University of NSW, which was worth 70 per cent of the student’s overall grade.

The cheating is widespread throughout the state’s university system, with almost 1000 assignments produced this year for students studying courses as diverse as philosophy, economics, law, engineering, astronomy and marketing.

One student spent more than $1500 on assignments for five different courses at the University of Newcastle’s Business School. Another student from the University of Wollongong paid for at least eight assignments.

The University of Sydney, the state’s premier institution, was among the most widely affected, with cheating spread across multiple faculties. During 2014, students from at least 37 of the university’s courses used the service.

The entrepreneur, Yingying Dou, went to high school at Pittwater House, a private school in Collaroy on Sydney’s northern beaches, and studied accounting at Macquarie University.

 

When approached by Fairfax Media, Ms Dou, who runs a university tutoring company called Yingcredible, would not comment on the MyMaster website.

“If you’re talking about MyMaster, I have nothing to talk [about],” she said. “No comment for today.”

Records show MyMaster and Yingcredible Tutoring are registered to the same principal place of business in Sussex Street in Chinatown. Ms Dou is also the registrant of the mymaster南京夜网.au website domain.

Within hours of Fairfax Media approaching Ms Dou, the MyMaster website was taken down.

 

A postgraduate finance student at Macquarie University said the practice of buying assignments online was widespread. On two separate occasions while he was working on a group assignment, international students in the group suggested they purchase the assignment online, rather than do the work themselves.

“I was not keen on that idea. I think people just want to do whatever they can to pass the course at all costs,” he said.

Assignment prices are advertised as a flat rate based on the number of words and the student’s level of qualification, with masters students paying more for assignments than undergraduate or diploma. The flat rates promise students a pass or credit grade, but they can negotiate a price for work that is of a distinction or high distinction quality.

MyMaster recruits its writers on Chinese social media sites, promising good rates and an end-of-year bonus.

In addition to essays, MyMaster customers have paid for business reports, speeches, powerpoint presentations and the completion of online tests, and requests range from short homework tasks to comprehensive research assignments.

Some students uploaded instructions for their ghost writer, explicitly detailing how they wanted their assignment to be completed.

They are guaranteed the purchased work is original and will not be detected by the universities’ plagiarism software.

Fairfax Media is aware of numerous websites offering similar services to students in Australia but most appear to be located offshore.

Australia’s international student market is a $15 billion industry and the country’s largest export after iron ore, coal and gold. International students, who often pay more than three times as much as locals for their degrees, generate a quarter of the annual income at some Australian universities.

Key interstate universities have also been ensnared in the scandal including RMIT, La Trobe University, Curtin University and the Queensland University of Technology.

The chief executive of Universities Australia, Belinda Robinson, said universities were aware of operations like MyMaster looking to exploit “a small minority of students seeking an easy path to success”.

“Students caught deliberately attempting to pass others’ work off as their own can be subject to harsh sanctions, up to and including automatic failure of courses and, ultimately, expulsion from the university,” she said.

Do you know more? [email protected]南京夜网.au

This story Administrator ready to work first appeared on Nanjing Night Net.


Dumping of live animals in sights of Brisbane City Council

Fines for dumping live animals will be adopted at a local level.Dumping live animals in Brisbane City Council bins will attract a fine of more than $4500 in new local laws set to be adopted following Tuesday’s meeting.
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In a strong message to perpetrators of animal cruelty, Lord Mayor Graham Quirk said the fine would apply under the new Health, Safety and Amenity Amending Local Law to individuals who dumped live animals in council bins.

The new law marks the transfer of laws governing council bin use from the State Government to the council jurisdiction and was set to be debated at last week’s council meeting before being controversially pulled at the last minute, without explanation.

The reason, the Lord Mayor said, was to correct an oversight that would have made the penalty for binning animals just more than $1000, or 10 penalty units, as opposed to the $4554, or 40 penalty units, that was passed after debate on Tuesday.

“I didn’t want to see a reduction in a fine that would have essentially amounted to cruelty to animals,” he said.

“What the effect of the change would have done was reducing it to 10 penalty points and I was not prepared to see that go through.

“I was insistent we withdraw it when we picked it up because in the end it’s about maintaining a strong message we will not see the reduction in penalty to those people who knowingly put a live animal in a bin.”

The council’s field services chairman David McLachlan said the dumping of live animals in bins was not a “significant issue” but the local law was a straight transfer from the state to local level.

“Simplicity was key, so we took state law and rewrote it as local law,” he said.

“I don’t believe it’s a significant issue but it existed under state law so it continues to exist under council law, we haven’t made any adjustment.”

He said without the increase, there was concern the council would be perceived as softening its views on animal cruelty, if the fines remained at just more than $1000.

“The Lord Mayor was concerned it would have provided the appearance that with live things being put into bins, there was a reduction in concern as an offence,” he said.

“We did not want to provide the perception that there had been a reduction in our concern for the treatment of live animals.”

Opposition Leader Milton Dick attacked the sudden withdrawal of the item from last week’s agenda without explanation, describing it as “an embarrassing stuff-up”.

“It’s embarrassing that this council, when we asked innocent questions last week, couldn’t explain,” he said.

“What procedures are put in place to prevent this happening again?

“I thank The Lord Mayor for cleaning up after Cr McLachlan.

“The laws we pass here, we are supposed to be on top of, and have impacts on our service providers, residents, ratepayers and staff.

“In future, I want to make sure the this sloppy and ad hoc approach doesn’t happen again.”

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Students buying assignments online could be charged with fraud

Yingying Dou, director of the MyMaster website. Photo: Dominic LorrimerStudents enlist website to write essays, assignmentsUniversity assignments – why are they cheating? Who is Yingying Dou, the mastermind behind the site
Nanjing Night Net

Students who pay essay writing services to complete their university assignments are not only breaching university plagiarism protocols but could also be charged with fraudulent conduct under NSW legislation, legal experts say.

As a Fairfax Media investigation reveals, essay-writing services offered by the Chinese-language website MyMaster are  at the centre of a widespread academic cheating scandal, potentially incriminating hundreds of students at almost every university in NSW.

David Caruso, the director of the litigation law unit at the University of Adelaide, says students who used MyMaster’s services could potentially “fall foul of laws relating to dishonesty and gaining advantages and benefits via deception”.

“The student is certainly doing something which I think one can characterise as misleading from the point of view of the student’s relationship with the university,” Mr Caruso said.

The offences of fraud and forgery, both of which carry maximum penalties of 10 years imprisonment under NSW criminal law, are among the more serious provisions triggered by the students’ conduct, lawyer and fraud expert Robert Wyld said.

 

While such offences would be “challenging” to prove they were “not beyond the realm of possibilities”, Mr Wyld said.

Although companies such as MyMaster facilitated large-scale academic cheating, authorities had few legal avenues to shut down the service, the experts said.

“With respect to competition and consumer protection as well as criminal law it’s not easy to prosecute a company such as this,” Mr Caruso said.

Universities would also have difficulty in bringing a fraud claim against the MyMaster company, Mr Wyld said, as there was “no direct relationship between the university and the website provider”, and because the company had been “upfront in what they provide”.

“They [MyMaster] will no doubt say they did nothing wrong and any student knows they must submit their own work, which means of course the answers prepared by the website provider would have to be substantially modified by the student to make the work the student’s own work.”

In addition to the potential legal ramifications, universities have academic dishonesty and plagiarism protocols in place which impose severe penalties against students found to have procured  “ghost writing” services to complete their assignments.

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